Yet there is a single line in O Uruguay which contains more poetry than this octave and many another of the stanzas in this ten-canto epic. It is worth while recalling, too, that the Indian of the first is from a Spanish-speaking tribe, and that the Indian of the second is a native Brazilian type. These men did not of set purpose advance an esthetic theory and seek to exemplify it in their writings; they are children of their day rather than brothers-in-arms.
Like the epic poets, so they, in their verses, foreshadow the coming of the Romanticists some fifty years later; the spirits of the old world and the new contend in their lines as in their lives.
Download e-book A Moreninha (Classics of Brazilian Literature Livro 36) (Portuguese Edition)
Romero, in his positive way, has catalogued him with the race of Lamartine and even called him a predecessor of the Brazilian Byronians. No other book of love poems has so appealed to the Portuguese reader; the number of editions through which the Marilia de Dirceu has gone is second only to the printings of Os Lusiadas , and has, since the original issue in , reached to thirty-four. His heart, as he told her in one of his most popular stanzas, was vaster than the world and it was her abode.
Gonzaga, like Claudio, was one of the Inconfidencia ; he fell in love with his lady at the age of forty, when she was eighteen, and sentimental Brazilians have never forgiven her for having lived on to a very ripe old age after her Dirceu, as he was known in Arcadian circles, died in exile. Yet she may have felt the loss deeply, for a story which Verissimo believes authentic tells of D. If, as time goes on, he surrenders his sway to the more sensuous lyrics of later poets, he is none the less a fixed star in the poetic constellation. The famous book is divided into two parts, the first written before, the second, after his exile.
As might be expected; the first is primaveral, aglow with beauty, love, joy.
Michael P Harney
Too, it lacks the depth of the more sincere second, which is more close to the personal life of the suffering artist. He began in glad hope; he ends in dark doubt. It is the most noble and perfect idealization of love that we possess. There is a certain Brazilianism, too, as Wolf noted, in his Ide to Maria. In him, more than in any other of the lyrists, may be noted the stirrings of the later romanticism. The question of the authorship of the Cartas Chilenas , salient among satirical writings of the eighteenth century, has long troubled historical critics.
In , when  the second edition of the poem appeared, it was signed Gonzaga, and later opinion tends to reinforce that claim. Like Gregorio de Mattos, the author of the Cartas is a spiteful scorpion. But he has a deeper knowledge of things and there is more humanity to his bitterness. There is, in his lines, the suggestion of reality, but it is a reality that the foreigner, and perhaps the Brazilian himself, must reconstruct with the aid of history, and this diminishes the appeal of the verses. The lesser poets of the era may be passed over with scant mention.
Best of them all is Domingos Caldas Barbosa known to his New Arcadia as Lereno and author of an uneven collection marred by frequent improvisation. The prose of the century, inferior  to the verse, produced no figures that can claim space in so succinct an outline as this. The ports of the land, hitherto restricted to vessels of the Portuguese monarchy, were thrown open to the world; the first newspapers appeared; Brazil, having tasted the power that was bestowed by the mere temporary presence of the monarch upon its soil, could not well relinquish this supremacy after he departed in The era, moreover, was one of colonial revolt; between and the Spanish dependencies of America rose against the motherland and achieved their own freedom; marks the establishment of the independent Brazilian monarchy.
Now begins a literature that may be properly called national, though even yet it wavered between the moribund classicism and the nascent romanticism, even as the form of government remained monarchial on its slow and dubious way to republicanism. Arcadian imagery still held sway in poetry and there was a decline from the originality of the Mineira group.
The  first, influenced by Rousseau, is avowedly Christian in purpose but the inner struggle that produced his verses makes of him a significant figure in a generally sterile era, and his Ode ao homen selvagem contains lines of appeal to our own contemporary dubiety. There is, too, a long description of Rio de Janeiro which describes very little.
Though these religious poets are of secondary importance to letters, they provided one of the necessary ingredients of the impending Romantic triumph; their Christian outlook, added to nationalism, tended to produce, as Wolf has indicated, a genuinely Brazilian romanticism. His scientific accomplishments have found ample chronicling in the proper places; quickly he won a reputation throughout Europe. They are, like himself, a thing of violent passions. In Aos Bahianos he exclaims:.
Two years before the publication of his poems he who so much loved to command fell from power with the dissolution of the Constituinte and he reacted in characteristic violence. Brazilians no longer loved liberty:. A number of other versifiers and prose writers are included by Brazilians in their accounts of the national letters; Romero, indeed, with a conception of literature more approaching that of sociology than of belles lettres, expatiates with untiring gusto upon the work of a formidable  succession of mediocrities.
We have neither the space nor the patience for them here. It is during the early part of the period epitomized in this chapter that Brazilian literature, born of the Portuguese, began to be drawn upon by the mother country. The period as a whole represents a decided step forward from the inchoate ramblings of the previous epoch. Yet, with few exceptions, it is of interest rather in retrospection, viewed from our knowledge of the romantic movement up to which it was leading. Later writers either retain the first or replace it with the more common u. Segunda Serie, pp.
A Frenchman has even spoken of the romanticism of the classics, which is by no means merely a sample of Gallic paradox. The Brazilian critic considers France the only one of the neo-Latin literatures that may be said to possess a genuinely classic period. As I have tried to suggest here and elsewhere, we have need of a change in literary terminology; classic and romantic are hazy terms that should, in time, be supplanted by something more in consonance with the observations of modern psychology.
Get e-book A Moreninha (Classics of Brazilian Literature Livro 36) (Portuguese Edition)
The emphasis, I would say, should be shifted from the subject-matter and external aspects to the psychology of the writer and his intuitive approach. The distinctions have long since lost their significance and should therefore be replaced by a more adequate nomenclature.
Verissimo rejects any such poetic interpretation and makes the topic food for fruitful observation. He considers the Brazilian savage, as any other, of rudimentary and scant imagination, incapable of lofty metaphorical flights. And to this name they added nothing marvellous, as our active imagination has pictured.
And unseen ever after, she was engulfed by the waters. But worst and saddest grief of all is to find that at no time is this fantastic victory of love transitory, for always it is repeated in remembrance.
Brazilian Literature , Isaac Goldberg
Let not treacherous contentment deceive you; for this present pleasure, when it has passed, will remain as a tormenting memory. He who created so perfect and entrancing a work, my fairest Marilia, likewise could make the sky and more, if more there be. This is my sole crime! The cry of liberty that once thundered through Brazil now is mute amidst chains and corpses. Over its ruins, far from their fatherland, weep its wandering sons. Because they loved it, they are accused of treason, by an infamous, truckling band. Though usually associated with French literature, the Romanticism of the first half of the nineteenth century, like that later neo-romanticism which nurtured the Symbolist and the Decadent schools of the second half, came originally from Germany, and was in essence a philosophy of self-liberation.
But national creative production thrives on cross-fertilization and self-made literatures are  as unthinkable as self-made men. And herein, of course, lies the great distinction between the mere nativism which is so easily taken for a national note, and that nationalism which adds to the exaltation of the milieu the spiritual consciousness of unity and independence.
A national literature, in the fuller sense, is now possible because it is the expression not solely of an aspiration but of partial accomplishment, with a historic background in fact. Poetry becomes more varied; the novel takes more definite form; genuine beginnings  are made in the theatre, though, despite valiant attempts to prove the contrary, the Brazilian stage is the least of its glories.
Carvalho, selecting the four representative poets of the period, has characterized each by the trait most prominent in his work. This group is but a solo quartet in a veritable chorus of singers that provides a variegated setting. The individual songs resound now more clearly, like so many strains in the polyphonic hymn of national liberation. The salient four are by no means restricted to the style of verse indicated by their classification, but such a grouping helps to emphasize the main currents of the new poetry. A visit to Europe in converted him thoroughly to French Romanticism and when, three years later, he issued the Suspiros poeticos e Saudades Poetic Sighs and Longings , the very title proclaimed the advent of a new orientation.
His invocation to the angel of poesy is in itself a miniature declaration of poetic independence:. The chaste virgins of Greece, as he announces in the lines preceding this virtual, if distinctly minor ars poetica , have fascinated his childhood enough. Farewell Homer; the poet will dream now of his native land and sigh, amid the cypress, a song made of his own griefs and longings. They are his constant thought at home and abroad.
Os Mysterios , a funereal canticle in memory of his children, published in Paris in , is in eight cantos that sing the triumph of faith. God exists and the human spirit is immortal in that knowledge. Urania , Vienna , chants love through the symbol of his wife.
Anticipatory Action In Self Defence Essence And Limits under International Law
The attitude toward the Jesuit missionaries is the opposite to the stand taken by Basilio da Gama in the Uruguay ; they alone among the Portuguese are worthy; the Indians yield at last to civilization, but they are idealized into defenders of justice against the Portuguese exploiters. The boresome epic Colombo , seeking inspiration in the great discoverer, is commendable for imagination rather than truly creative poetry. The native was exalted not so much for his own sake as by intense reaction against the former oppressors of the nation.
Our literature was then for the first time, and perhaps the last, social. These stanzas, set to music, became the property of the nation.
With it he reached and conquered the people and our women, who are—in all respects—the chief element in the fame and success of poets. And not only the people, but Brazilian literature and poetry. Since that time the poet is rare who does not sing his land. In all you will find that song, expressed as conscious or disguised imitation. The nativist instinct, so characteristic of peoples in their infancy, found also a sympathetic echo in his Poesias Americanas , and received as a generous reparation the idealization of our primitive inhabitants and their deeds, without inquiring into what there was in common between them and us, into the fidelity of those pictures and how far they served the cause of a Brazilian literature.
His lyrism, of an intensity which then could be compared in our language only to that of Garrett,  whose influence is evident in it, found similarly a response in the national feeling. He counts it the distinguishing trait of the poet that his love poems move the reader with the very breath of authenticity. In him love is not the sensual, carnal, morbid desire of Alvares de Azevedo; the wish for caresses, the yearning for pleasure characteristic of Casimiro de Abreu, or the amorous, impotent fury of Junqueira Freire.
It it the great powerful feeling purified by idealization,—the love that all men feel,—not the individual passion, the personal, limited case. It is rather that they have never  found it as they have visioned it. The reason for the difference is to be sought rather in personal constitution than in poetic creed. The passage just quoted, with all deference to Verissimo, is not great poetry, and precisely because it is too general.
It is statement, not the unfolding of passion in a form spontaneously created. His Lira dos Veinte Annos is exactly what the title announces; the lyre of a twenty-year-old, which, though its strings give forth romantic strains of bitterness and melancholy and imagination that have become associated with Byron, Musset and Leopardi, sounds an individual note as well.
The poet died in his twenty-first year; it was a death that he foresaw and that naturally coloured his verses. His brief, hectic career had no time for meticulous polishing of lines; if the statue did not come out as at first he desired, he broke it rather than recast the metal. In the 12 de Setembro his birthday he exclaims:. But one must guard against attributing this to the morbid pose that comes so easy at twenty. Pose there was, and flaunting satanism, but too many of these poets in Brazil, and in the various republics of Spanish-America died young for one to doubt their sincerity altogether.
Related A Moreninha (Classics of Brazilian Literature Livro 36) (Portuguese Edition)
Copyright 2019 - All Right Reserved